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Bioprophylaxis in solving problems of chemical safety

The four main provisions determine the essence of the problem on the effect of potentially toxic chemicals on the human body, called “biological prophylaxis”.

The first is that according to the results of many year experimental and clinical observations of both the authors of this publication and their colleagues abroad it is established the effectiveness of a number of means of individual prophylaxis in intoxications and diseases of chemical etiology.

Is it possible to extrapolate this data on solving specific partial problems to more general methodological problems of universal significance? It is not only possible, but is necessary.

The second provides for grounding approaches to implementation of individual and collective bioprophylaxis. We should agree with researchers from Yekaterinburg, who believe that although the basic principles of biological prevention are common to various types of pathology caused by harmful factors of work conditions and the environment, effective realization of these principles will depend on pathogenetic mechanisms of this or that pathology. It is determined, to a great extent, by peculiarities of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of an active ingredient.

The third important provision is to exclude the danger of occupational or ecology-related pathology by elimination of the active harmful factor from production or the environment. In cases where it is not possible in advance, the purpose is to reduce the harmful effect to the level that does not cause a negative effect, even in the most sensitive individuals. At this level of development of economics and technology, it is unlikely to anticipate rapid and complete elimination of technogenic risks. So, there is a need to continue the search for an “additional” counter-way for preventive medicine, aiming to reduce the sensitivity (or to increase resistance) for certain groups of people. It means that the implementation of this way will reduce sensitivity (or increase the resistance of the body) to such a level, when the probability of development of harmful consequences to the health will be significantly reduced even at a potentially dangerous level of action.

The fourth position, which is organically linked with the latter – bioprophylaxis provides for a long-term use of corresponding means and methods affecting large contingents of practically healthy workers and the population, which corresponds to requirements of full safety. It is namely this compulsory condition (sine qua non) that distinguishes biopophylaxis from pathogenetic therapy of occupation- and ecology-specified diseases.

Brief description

The pollution of the environment in Ukraine has a negative impact on ecosystems and the population health. There is an increase in the effect of new occupational and environmental factors, to which a person does not have evolutionarily developed adaptive mechanisms.

Today, in the sphere of national economy of Ukraine, approximately 7% of the total number of employees work in conditions of the effect of harmful and dangerous factors, the source of which are technological processes, unfavorable work conditions and  its specificity, for example, for workers of enterprises of chemical and petrochemical industries.

The analysis of causes of developing occupational diseases in Ukraine shows the availability of about 140 occupational harmful factors, exceeding the maximum permissible level in conditions of modern production, including more than 100 chemicals with a combined effect.

In 1997, the UNEP Council concluded that the international actions were needed to reduce the risk to human health and the environment, caused by 12 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) – PCBs, dioxins, HCBs, heptachlor, DDT and others.

Among the priority pollutants in Ukraine, heavy metals (HMs) and radionuclides are of primary importance.

Competitive attractiveness of the elaboration

Currently, many scientific teams are developing treatment and prophylactic preparations of natural origin, aimed at prevention and treatment of diseases, caused by exogenous toxic substances.

The development of universal prophylactic preparations can be solved by developing compositions, containing components that are selectively effective for a specific class of xenobiotics.

In this regard, in the complex of measures aimed at reducing the action of harmful chemicals on the body, the use of pectin preparations can play an important role. The grounding and implementation of pectin usage has been the subject of research of the Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology at the Institute of Occupational Health of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine for more than 2 decades.

The effectiveness of pectin use for prophylaxis has been proven in the joint research – in models (in vitro), in experimental animals, in contingents of workers exposed to heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium, etc.) and radionuclides, as well as for the population, including pregnant women, children residing in regions, which can be considered as areas of the environmental disaster (exposure to HMs, POPs). The examples of the use of different types of pectin are shown in Figures.

There have been developed new composite pectin-vitamin preparations with high efficiency in respect of different xenobiotics. The action of the developed preparations has been studied and their compositions are optimized.

The combination of several pectins – produced from beet and apple, having different chemical functional characteristics and a powerful complex of vitamins, made it possible to develop a unique pectin-containing composition. The regulation and technological documentation, prepared according to acting legislation, has been approved by the Ministry of Health of Ukraine.

Patentability of development

  • It is patented the receipt of the output of the raw material – pectin and the use of pectin-containing compositions in medical practice. If necessary, joint patenting may be agreed with a potential customer.
  • One of pectin-containing preparations (TU U 15.8-16475490.001-2001), which is a joint development of the co-authors of this Project – Taras Shevchenko Kiev National University and Kundiiev Institute of Occupational Health of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine is produced by “Tekhnologika”, first produced at the JSC “Vitamin” (city of Uman), and then, at Kyiv Vitamin Plant in experimental parties, and is used in Ukraine and other countries.
  • The methodical support in pectin prophylaxis is directed at both specific contingents of working people and at risk groups (I.M. Trakhtenberg, 1986). The method of usage and dosage is outlined in detail in the information leaflet, which is attached to each package of the preparation in accordance with the acting normative documents. There are no contraindications for use of the preparation (except individual sensitivity); combination with other preparations is permissible. The main component of the preparations that we have developed is always low-etherified beet pectin or pectin-containing powder, which is of the highest efficiency in relation to various xenobiotics.
    It should be noted that pectin prophylaxis should be conducted with the use of preparations in tablets or drops, which makes it possible to ensure the daily rate of pectin consumption in production, prescribed by the legislation.
  • The obtained results indicate the possibility of significant reduction of technogenic loads, caused by occupational contacts of workers with compounds of heavy metals, radioactive substances and other potentially toxic chemical substances.

Bioprophylaxis in solving problems of chemical safety

  • In the context of combat operations and the associated ecological state of large territories of Ukraine, there is a particular risk of chemical hazard for large military contingents and the population.
  • The risk of exposure to HMs and other chemical factors for workers (including welders in the closed spaces in production of military vehicles and equipment) is increasing in the defense industry, which has been lately actively intensified. With this in view, it is evident that individual bioprophylaxis, pectin prophylaxis in particular, can be one of the most effective, universal and available ways of solving the problem of minimizing fatal effects of heavy metals, emissions of pollutants and products of combustion of materials of different origin on human health.
  • The raw material base, developed technologies for production of pectin substances and composite preparations on their basis, approved scientific and technical documentation, methodical documents and wide experience of use – all these create the basis for further development of pectin prophylaxis in Ukraine.
  • Project developers: “Technologika” Scientific-Production Enterprise Ltd., Faculty of Chemistry in Taras Shevchenko Kiev National University, SI “Kundiiev Institute of Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine”

Demchenko P.I., Trakhtenberg I.M., Demchenko V.F., Коzlov К.P.
Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University
SI «Kundiiev Institute of Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine»