The four main provisions determine the essence of the problem on the effect of potentially toxic chemicals on the human body, called “biological prophylaxis”.
The first is that according to the results of many year experimental and clinical observations of both the authors of this publication and their colleagues abroad it is established the effectiveness of a number of means of individual prophylaxis in intoxications and diseases of chemical etiology.
Is it possible to extrapolate this data on solving specific partial problems to more general methodological problems of universal significance? It is not only possible, but is necessary.
The second provides for grounding approaches to implementation of individual and collective bioprophylaxis. We should agree with researchers from Yekaterinburg, who believe that although the basic principles of biological prevention are common to various types of pathology caused by harmful factors of work conditions and the environment, effective realization of these principles will depend on pathogenetic mechanisms of this or that pathology. It is determined, to a great extent, by peculiarities of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of an active ingredient.
The third important provision is to exclude the danger of occupational or ecology-related pathology by elimination of the active harmful factor from production or the environment. In cases where it is not possible in advance, the purpose is to reduce the harmful effect to the level that does not cause a negative effect, even in the most sensitive individuals. At this level of development of economics and technology, it is unlikely to anticipate rapid and complete elimination of technogenic risks. So, there is a need to continue the search for an “additional” counter-way for preventive medicine, aiming to reduce the sensitivity (or to increase resistance) for certain groups of people. It means that the implementation of this way will reduce sensitivity (or increase the resistance of the body) to such a level, when the probability of development of harmful consequences to the health will be significantly reduced even at a potentially dangerous level of action.
The fourth position, which is organically linked with the latter – bioprophylaxis provides for a long-term use of corresponding means and methods affecting large contingents of practically healthy workers and the population, which corresponds to requirements of full safety. It is namely this compulsory condition (sine qua non) that distinguishes biopophylaxis from pathogenetic therapy of occupation- and ecology-specified diseases.
The pollution of the environment in Ukraine has a negative impact on ecosystems and the population health. There is an increase in the effect of new occupational and environmental factors, to which a person does not have evolutionarily developed adaptive mechanisms.
Today, in the sphere of national economy of Ukraine, approximately 7% of the total number of employees work in conditions of the effect of harmful and dangerous factors, the source of which are technological processes, unfavorable work conditions and its specificity, for example, for workers of enterprises of chemical and petrochemical industries.
The analysis of causes of developing occupational diseases in Ukraine shows the availability of about 140 occupational harmful factors, exceeding the maximum permissible level in conditions of modern production, including more than 100 chemicals with a combined effect.
In 1997, the UNEP Council concluded that the international actions were needed to reduce the risk to human health and the environment, caused by 12 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) – PCBs, dioxins, HCBs, heptachlor, DDT and others.
Among the priority pollutants in Ukraine, heavy metals (HMs) and radionuclides are of primary importance.
Competitive attractiveness of the elaboration
Currently, many scientific teams are developing treatment and prophylactic preparations of natural origin, aimed at prevention and treatment of diseases, caused by exogenous toxic substances.
The development of universal prophylactic preparations can be solved by developing compositions, containing components that are selectively effective for a specific class of xenobiotics.
In this regard, in the complex of measures aimed at reducing the action of harmful chemicals on the body, the use of pectin preparations can play an important role. The grounding and implementation of pectin usage has been the subject of research of the Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology at the Institute of Occupational Health of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine for more than 2 decades.
The effectiveness of pectin use for prophylaxis has been proven in the joint research – in models (in vitro), in experimental animals, in contingents of workers exposed to heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium, etc.) and radionuclides, as well as for the population, including pregnant women, children residing in regions, which can be considered as areas of the environmental disaster (exposure to HMs, POPs). The examples of the use of different types of pectin are shown in Figures.
There have been developed new composite pectin-vitamin preparations with high efficiency in respect of different xenobiotics. The action of the developed preparations has been studied and their compositions are optimized.
The combination of several pectins – produced from beet and apple, having different chemical functional characteristics and a powerful complex of vitamins, made it possible to develop a unique pectin-containing composition. The regulation and technological documentation, prepared according to acting legislation, has been approved by the Ministry of Health of Ukraine.
Patentability of development
Bioprophylaxis in solving problems of chemical safety
Demchenko P.I., Trakhtenberg I.M., Demchenko V.F., Коzlov К.P.
Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University
SI «Kundiiev Institute of Occupational Health of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine»